The task of steels Classifying Metals based upon Activity
Predicting the Product of Main group Metal reactions

The task ofMetals

The main difference in between metals is the ease with whichthey undergo tastecraftedmcd.comical reactions. The aspects toward the bottomleft edge of the periodic table room the steels that room themost active in the feeling of being the most reactive.Lithium, sodium, and potassium every react with water, for example.The price of this reaction increases as us go down this column,however, due to the fact that these facets become more active together they becomemore metallic.

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Classifying MetalsBased top top Activity

The metals are often separated into 4 classes on the basis oftheir activity, as displayed in the table below.

Common Metals split into class on theBasis of your Activity


Class i Metals: The energetic Metals
Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs (Group IA)
Ca, Sr, Ba (Group IIA)
Class II Metals: The Less energetic Metals
Mg, Al, Zn, Mn
Class III Metals: The structural Metals
Cr, Fe, Sn, Pb, Cu
Class IV Metals: The Coinage Metals
Ag, Au, Pt, Hg

The most active metals room so reactive the they readilycombine v the O2 and also H2O vapor in theatmosphere and also are as such stored under one inert liquid, suchas mineral oil. These steels are uncovered exclusively in groups IAand IIA that the periodic table.

Metals in the 2nd class space slightly less active. Theydon"t react through water in ~ room temperature, yet they reactrapidly v acids.

The 3rd class has metals such together chromium, iron, tin,and lead, i beg your pardon react only with strong acids. It likewise containseven less active metals such together copper, which just dissolves whentreated v acids that deserve to oxidize the metal.

Metals in the fourth class are for this reason unreactive lock areessentially inert in ~ room temperature. These metals are appropriate formaking jewel or coins because they perform not react with the vastmajority that the substances v which castle come right into dailycontact. As a result, they room often dubbed the "coinagemetals."

Predicting the Productof Main team Metal reaction

The product of many reactions in between main group metals andother facets can be predicted from the electron configurationsof the elements.

Example: consider the reaction between sodium and chlorine toform salt chloride. It takes an ext energy to eliminate an electronfrom a sodium atom to type an Na+ ion 보다 we get backwhen this electron is included to a chlorine atom to kind a Cl-ion. Once these ions are formed, however, the pressure of attractionbetween these ions liberates enough energy to do the followingreaction exothermic.


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Ho = -411.3 kJ/mol

The net effect of this reaction is to carry one electronfrom a neutral salt atom to a neutral chlorine atom to type Na+and Cl- ion that have actually filled-shell configurations.

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Potassium and also hydrogen have the following electronconfigurations.


K: 4s1 H: 1s1

When these aspects react, an electron has to be transferredfrom one aspect to the other. We have the right to decide which facet shouldlose one electron by to compare the first ionization power forpotassium (418.8 kJ/mol) with that for hydrogen (1312.0 kJ/mol).

Potassium is much more likely to lose anelectron in this reaction, which means that hydrogen gains anelectron to kind K+ and H- ions.

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Practice problem 1:

Write a balanced equation because that the adhering to reaction.

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