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1) The spinal cord is component of the ________ nervous mechanism.

You are watching: The most complicated spinal reflexes are called

A) peripheral

B) somatic

C) central

D) autonomic

E) afferent


2) The ________ is a strand also of fibrous tconcern that provides longitudinal assistance to the spinal cord as a component of the coccygeal ligament.

A) conus medullaris

B) filum terminale

C) cauda equina

D) dorsal root

E) ventral root


3) Spinal nerves are

A) pucount sensory.

B) purely motor.

C) both sensory and motor.

D) interneuronal.

E) involuntary.


4) The spinal cord consists of four regions and ________ segments.

A) five

B) twelve

C) twenty-five

D) thirty-one

E) The number varies extensively among people.


5) The dorsal root ganglia greatly contain

A) axons of motor neurons.

B) axons of sensory neurons.

C) cell bodies of motor neurons.

D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.

E) synapses.


6) The dorsal root of a spinal nerve contains

A) axons of motor neurons.

B) axons of sensory neurons.

C) cell bodies of motor neurons.

D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.

E) interneurons.


7) The ventral root of a spinal nerve contains

A) axons of motor neurons.

B) axons of sensory neurons.

C) cell bodies of motor neurons.

D) cell bodies of sensory neurons.

E) interneurons.


8) The hard, fibrous, outermost extending of the spinal cord is the

A) arachnoid.

B) pia mater.

C) dura mater.

D) epidural block.

E) periosteum.


9) After age ________, the vertebral column continues to elongate, but the spinal cord itself does not.

A) 8

B) 12

C) 18

D) 4

E) 1


10) If the dorsal root of a spinal nerve is severed,

A) output to skeletal muscles would be blocked.

B) output to visceral organs would certainly be blocked.

C) the spinal cord would not have the ability to procedure information at that level.

D) the brain would not have the ability to interact with that level of the spinal cord.

E) sensory input would certainly be blocked.


11) The subdural room lies between

A) the arachnoid mater and also the pia mater.

B) the pia mater and also the dura mater.

C) the dura mater and the arachnoid mater.

D) the pia mater and also the subarachnoid room.

E) the endosteum and the periosteum.


12) The layer of the meninges in direct call through the spinal cord is the

A) dura mater.

B) subarachnoid space.

C) arachnoid.

D) pia mater.

E) choroid plexus.


13) A dorsal and ventral root of each spinal segment unite to form a

A) cervical enlargement.

B) lumbar enlargement.

C) spinal nerve.

D) spinal meninx.

E) spinal ganglion.


14) In meningitis,

A) inflammation of the meninges occurs.

B) bacteria have the right to be the cause.

C) viruses can be the reason.

D) CSF flow deserve to be disrupted.

E) All of the answers are correct.


15) Which of the complying with is true regarding an epidural block?

A) It is frequently supplied as an approach of pain manage throughout labor and also delivery.

B) It affects only the spinal nerves in the prompt location of the injection.

C) It have the right to administer sensory and motor anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic schosen.

D) It have the right to administer largely sensory anesthesia, depending on the anesthetic schosen.

E) All of the answers are correct.


16) Cerebrospinal fluid flows within the

A) filum terminale.

B) subarachnoid area.

C) dura mater.

D) pia mater.

E) arachnoid mater.


17) The spinal cord proceeds to elongate until around age

A) twenty years.

B) 10 years.

C) 4 years.

D) 6 months.

E) 2 months.


18) The specialized membranes that surround the spinal cord are termed the

A) cranial meninges.

B) cranial mater.

C) spinal meninges.

D) spinal mater.

E) epidural membranes.


19) Blood vessels that supply the spinal cord run along the surchallenge of the

A) pia mater.

B) dura mater.

C) epidural space.

D) subdural room.

E) subarachnoid area.


20) Samples of CSF for diagnostic objectives are generally derived by placing the tip of a needle in the

A) dura mater.

B) arachnoid mater.

C) epidural area.

D) subarachnoid room.

E) cerebral ventricles.


22) Bill contracts a viral illness that destroys cells in the posterior gray horns in his spinal cord. As an outcome, which of the complying with would you expect?

A) loss of sensation in his torso

B) inability to breathe

C) problems with relocating his arms

D) unmanageable sweating of his feet

E) difficulties relocating his legs


23) The white matter of the spinal cord is mainly

A) unmyelinated axons.

B) neuroglia.

C) Schwann cells.

D) myelinated axons.

E) nodes of Ranvier.


24) The gray horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

A) nerve tracts.

B) columns.

C) meninges.

D) neuron cell bodies.

E) funiculi.


25) The posterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

A) sensory nuclei.

B) somatic motor nuclei.

C) autonomic motor nuclei.

D) nerve tracts.

E) sympathetic nuclei.


26) The anterior horns of the spinal cord contain mainly

A) sensory nuclei.

B) somatic motor nuclei.

C) autonomic motor nuclei.

D) nerve tracts.

E) sympathetic nuclei.


27) Nerve tracts or fasciculi comprise the

A) main canal.

B) posterior gray horns.

C) gray commissures.

D) white columns.

E) anterior gray horns.


28) In the spinal cord, white issue is separated into ascending and also descending tracts arranged as

A) nuclei.

B) ganglia.

C) columns.

D) nerves.

E) horns.


29) The exterior projections from the central gray issue of the spinal cord, checked out quickly in microscopic spinal cord cross sections, are called

A) wings.

B) horns.

C) pyramids.

D) fibers.

E) tracts.


30) Axons crossing from one side of the spinal cord to the other within the gray issue are uncovered in the

A) anterior gray horns.

B) lateral gray horns.

C) posterior gray horns.

D) gray commissures.

E) white commissures.


31) The white issue of the spinal cord contains

A) bundles of axons via widespread origins, destinations, and also attributes.

B) bundles of dendrites with widespread origins, destinations, and functions.

C) sensory and motor nuclei.

D) both axons and dendrites.

E) interneurons.


38) Into what spinal location would certainly one inject a chemical whose purpose is to anesthetize the patient?

A) the subarachnoid space

B) the central canal

C) the subdural space

D) the epidural space

E) the venous dural sinus


39) The outerthe majority of connective-tworry covering of nerves is the

A) endoneurium.

B) endomysium.

C) perineurium.

D) epineurium.

E) epimysium.


40) The preganglionic fibers that affix a spinal nerve through an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cord and also carries visceral motor fibers that are myelinated form the

A) white rami communicantes.

B) gray rami communicantes.

C) dorsal ramus.

D) ventral ramus.

E) dermatomes.


41) The postganglionic fibers that connect an autonomic ganglion in the thoracic or lumbar region via the spinal nerve and contain postganglionic fibers that innervate glands in the body wall or smooth muscles in limbs are

A) white rami communicantes.

B) gray rami communicantes.

C) dorsal ramus.

D) ventral ramus.

E) dermatomes.


42) Postganglionic fibers of the autonomic nervous system that innervate inner organs are

A) dorsal rami.

B) ventral rami.

C) white rami.

D) gray rami.

E) sympathetic nerves.


43) Which of the complying with associations is incorrect?

A) 8 cervical spinal nerves

B) 11 thoracic spinal nerves

C) 5 lumbar spinal nerves

D) 5 sacral spinal nerves

E) 1 coccygeal spinal nerve


44) The ________ of each spinal nerve innervates the skin and muscles of the ago.

A) white ramus communicantes

B) gray ramus communicantes

C) dorsal ramus

D) ventral ramus

E) dermatome


45) Muscles of the neck and also shoulder are innervated by spinal nerves from the ________ region.

A) cervical

B) thoracic

C) lumbar

D) sacral

E) coccygeal


46) The ventral rami of spinal nerves C5 to T1 contribute fibers to the ________ plexus.

A) cervical

B) brachial

C) lumbar

D) sacral

E) thoracic


47) In which plexus does the ulnar nerve arise?

A) cranial

B) cervical

C) brachial

D) lumbar

E) sacral


48) In the condition ________, a virus infects dorsal root ganglia, bring about a painful rash whose distribution coincides to that of the affected sensory nerves as viewed in their dermatomes.

A) myasthenia gravis

B) neuronal damage

C) shingles

D) chickenpox

E) Hodgkin"s disease


49) The layer of connective tproblem that surrounds a fascicle within a peripheral nerve is the

A) perineurium.

B) epineurium.

C) endoneurium.

D) epimysium.

E) endosteum.


50) Spinal nerves from the sacral region of the cord innervate the ________ muscles.

A) shoulder

B) intercostal

C) abdominal

D) leg

E) facial


51) The ________ innervates the ventrolateral body surconfront, frameworks in the body wall, and also the limbs.

A) white rami communicantes

B) gray rami communicantes

C) dorsal ramus

D) ventral ramus

E) dermatomes


52) The obturator nerve is spread to the

A) adductors of the hip.

B) skin over the perineum.

C) extensors of the hip.

D) skin over buttocks.

E) biceps femoris.


53) A viral condition that destroys the cells of the anterior gray horn will

A) bring about skeletal muscle weakness or paralysis.

B) interfere through place feeling.

C) mainly interfere through crude touch and also temperature sense.

D) block autonomic regulation.

E) impact visceral motor attribute.


54) The complex, interwcooktop network-related developed by contributions from the ventral rami of bordering spinal nerves is termed a(n)

A) dermatome.

B) autonomic nerve.

C) lateral nerve.

D) tract.

E) plexus.


55) Each of the complying with nerves originates in the lumbar plexus except the ________ nerve.

A) saphenous

B) sciatic

C) femoral

D) obturator

E) genitofemoral


56) The ________ nerve, which arises in the cervical plexus, innervates the diaphragm.

A) ansa cervicalis

B) lesser occipital

C) radial

D) phrenic

E) sciatic


57) The layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual axons within a peripheral nerve is termed the

A) endoneurium.

B) perineurium.

C) aponeurium.

D) metaneurium.

E) subneurium.


58) The ventral rami develop 4 major plexsupplies, including all of the following other than the ________ plexus.

A) brachial

B) lumbar

C) sacral

D) nuchal

E) cervical


59) If a person has a crush injury to the C3-C5 spinal segments, you would intend that he

A) could be unable to breathe on his own.

B) could walk without obstacle.

C) would have actually complete selection of movement in all extremities.

D) would certainly be in a coma.

E) would have difficulty chewing and relocating the tongue.


60) As the ________ nerve viewpoints the knee, it divides into two branches, the fibular nerve and also the tibial nerve.

A) perineal

B) femoral

C) brachial

D) pudendal

E) sciatic


61) Mary is in an vehicle accident and also suffers a spinal cord injury. She has actually lost feeling in her lower body. Her doctor tells her that swelling is compressing a portion of her spinal cord. Which component of her cord is most likely to be compressed?

A) the anterior gray horns

B) the anterior gray commissures

C) ascfinishing tracts

D) descfinishing tracts

E) the anterior white commissures


62) The brachial plexus offers climb to every one of the adhering to nerves except the

A) radial.

B) median.

C) ulnar.

D) musculocutaneous.

E) phrenic.


73) Recognized neuronal circuit trends include every one of the following except

A) convergent.

B) divergent.

C) multipolar.

D) reverberating.

E) parallel processing.


74) You are sitting at a Mexihave the right to restaurant waiting for your food. The waiter brings a very hot plate, informing you to be careful about emotional it. You touch it anymethod, creating a pain sensation in your fingers, a withdrawal of your hand, and an auditory comment of what you are reasoning. This scenario represents a ________ neuronal circuit.

A) parallel

B) reverberation

C) serial

D) convergent

E) consensual


75) All of the adhering to are true of neural reflexes other than that they

A) are automatic motor responses.

B) are the most basic form of habits.

C) help preserve homeostasis.

D) cannot be modified by the brain.

E) involve at least 2 neurons


76) Reflexes based on synapses formed during breakthrough are ________ reflexes.

A) visceral

B) innate

C) acquired

D) somatic

E) vegetative


77) Reflexes have the right to be classified according to all of the complying with except

A) their breakthrough.

B) where information handling occurs.

C) the motor response.

D) the intricacy of the neural circuit.

E) whether they are sensory or motor.


78) All of the following are true of muscle spindles except that they

A) are uncovered within skeletal muscle.

B) consist of specialized fibers referred to as intrafusal fibers.

C) are found in tendons.

D) are the receptor for the stretch reflex.

E) are innervated by gamma motor neurons.


79) The reflex that avoids a muscle from exerting as well much stress is the ________ reflex.

A) stretch

B) tendon

C) flexor

D) crossed extensor

E) reciprocal


80) Spinal interneurons inhibit antagonist motor neurons in a procedure called

A) a crossed extensor reflex.

B) a stretch reflex.

C) a tendon reflex.

D) reciprocal inhibition.

E) reverberating circuits.


81) The ________ reflex complements the flexor reflex by activating contralateral muscles.

A) stretch

B) tendon

C) flexor

D) crossed extensor

E) reciprocal


82) The flexor reflex

A) stays clear of a muscle from overextending.

B) avoids a muscle from generating damaging stress.

C) moves a limb amethod from a painful stimulus.

D) typically depends on cranial neurons.

E) is an example of a monosynaptic reflex.


83) In which of the following would the delay in between stimulus and also response be greater?

A) a monosynaptic reflex

B) a polysynaptic reflex


84) Which statement is false about reflexes?

A) Reflex responses can change over time.

B) You have no conscious manage or modification capacity over reflex action.

C) Some reflex responses are hereditary.

D) Reflex responses deserve to be amplified by repetition.

E) All of the over statements are true; there are no false statements.


85) Tina falls while climbing a tree and lands on her ago. Her frightened parents take her to the emergency room, wright here she is examined. Her knee-jerk reflex is normal and also she exhibits a plantar reflex (negative Babinski reflex). These outcomes indicate that Tina has

A) injured among her descending nerve tracts.

B) injured one of her ascfinishing nerve tracts.

C) a spinal injury in the lumbar region.

D) a spinal injury in the cervical region.

E) endured no damage to her spinal cord.


86) Which of the following is not true around a positive Babinski reflex?

A) normal in newborns

B) abnormal in adults

C) a authorize of injury to descending spinal tracts

D) why you close your eyes once you sneeze

E) flaring of the toes as soon as the sole is stroked


1) The dura mater tapers inferiorly to form the

A) coccygeal ligament.

B) conus medullaris.

C) cauda equine.

D) subarachnoid room.

E) denticulum latum.


2) The problem in which a perboy loses all feeling and motion of the arms and also legs because of spinal cord injury is termed

A) paraplegia.

B) hemiplegia.

C) spinal shock.

D) quadriplegia.

E) spinal tranarea.


3) The loss of feeling and motion of the legs is termed

A) paraplegia.

B) hemiplegia.

C) spinal shock.

D) quadriplegia.

E) spinal tranarea.


4) The ________ sepaprices the dura mater from the wall surfaces of the vertebral canal.

A) subdural space

B) subarachnoid space

C) epidural space

D) venous dural sinus

E) main canal


5) The dorsal root includes ________ neurons.

A) sensory

B) motor

C) interneurons

D) efferent

E) unipolar


6) Blood vessels traveling within the ________ room supply oxygen and nutrients to the spinal cord.

A) dura mater

B) central

C) epidural

D) subdural

E) subarachnoid


7) Throughout the procedure recognized as a(n) ________, a needle is inserted right into the subarachnoid room in the inferior lumbar area.

A) EEG

B) encephalomyelogram

C) laminectomy

D) lumbar puncture

E) thoracic tap


8) The white ramus and also the gray ramus collectively are called the

A) spinal nerve.

B) rami communicantes.

C) meninges.

D) ganglia.

E) ascfinishing tracts.


9) Suppose that you feel somepoint brushing versus your abdomales. The sensory indevelopment would be carried to the spinal cord over a(n) ________ ramus.

A) dorsal

B) sympathetic

C) lateral

D) ventral

E) ascending


10) The certain sexpedition of skin that is innervated by a particular spinal nerve is dubbed a

A) rootlet.

B) ramus.

C) meninx.

D) ganglion.

E) dermatome.


11) A complex, interwoven netjob-related of nerves is called a

A) dermatome.

B) ramus.

C) plexus.

D) ganglion.

E) tracts.


12) The nerve vital for breathing that originates within the cervical plexus is referred to as the ________ nerve.

A) brachial

B) phrenic

C) intercostal

D) ganglion

E) sciatic


13) In ________, one neuron synapses on several postsynaptic neurons.

A) divergence

B) intercommunication

C) a plexus

D) a pool

E) convergence


14) Interneurons are organized into sensible teams called

A) neuronal pools.

B) plexi.

C) rami.

D) spindles.

E) perineuria.


15) The neural "wiring" of a single reflex is dubbed a(n)

A) reflex arc.

B) ramus.

C) ganglion.

D) tract.

E) intershoot.


16) ________ reflexes activate skeletal muscles.

A) Involuntary

B) Cranial

C) Spinal

D) Autonomic

E) Somatic


17) The most complex spinal reflexes are called

A) collateral reflex arcs.

B) ipsilateral reflex arcs.

C) intersegpsychological reflex arcs.

D) dermatomes.

E) spinal plexuses.


18) Reflexes that activate muscles on the exact same side of the body as the stimulus are called

A) contralateral.

B) ipsilateral.

C) commensual.

D) involuntary.

E) parasympathetic.


19) Reflexes that activate muscles on the opposite side of the body as the stimulus are called

A) contralateral.

B) ipsilateral.

C) commensual.

D) involuntary.

E) parasympathetic.


20) In a(n) ________ reflex, a sensory neuron synapses directly on a motor neuron.

See more: But First We Need To Talk About Parallel Universes, A Presses /

A) monosynaptic

B) ipsilateral

C) commensual

D) involuntary

E) polysynaptic


21) A(n) ________ reflex contends least one interneuron inserted between the sensory and also motor neurons.