Opposition to the Vietnam War motivated a magnitude of breeze resistance not seen since the civil War. In 1968, bill Davidson check the impacts of the draft and the inner struggle of countless young guys who were called to serve.

Bill Davidson


This story on the Vietnam war draft was very first published in the January 27, 1968, edition of the Post together “Hell, No, we Won’t Go!” us republish it below as component of our 50th anniversary commemoration the the Summer of Love. Role to the bottom to view this story as it appeared in the magazine.>

A huge interstate bus noses into the checkpoint on the Canadian border near Rouses Point, brand-new York Canadian custom-mades officials come aboard, accompanied by two FBI men. The agents have fugitive warrants in your pockets, and also they are in search of young americans of draft age trying come flee the country. Lock tap one young on the shoulder. …

It’s 10 a.m. In the workplaces of a huge utility agency in Chicago. 2 FBI men and also two federal marshals go into a supervisor’s cubicle and ask to speak through a young clerk. The youth is called out right into the corridor, and the agents placed him under arrest because that violation that the Selective company Act. Lock snap handcuffs on the young male wrists. …

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A Pfc. Is stand at attention in the orderly room of a quartermaster company at Ft. Knox in Kentucky. A reservist, he is attract civilian clothes. His company commander says to him. “I’m giving you a direct order to put on your uniform and report because that duty.” The young soldier says, “I cannot, for factors of conscience.” The firm commander assignment the soldier taken to the write-up stockade, whereby he is stripped and also put in a steel isolation cell. …

Two FBI males are working their way up avenue A in brand-new York City’s East village hippie colony. They are asking about a boy called Johnson who failed to it is registered for the breeze in his hometown, Sacramento, Calif. And then disappeared. Castle walk right previous Johnson without discovering it. Johnson hasn’t to be Johnson for a lengthy time. Hiding out through the hippies in mountain Francisco, Los Angeles, Chicago, and brand-new York, he has used half a dozen names. In the East town he is well-known simply together Scuby. …

Across the country such scenes are taking place virtually every day. “Open resistance to the draft,” says columnist Clayton Fritchey, “is higher than at any time due to the fact that the civil War.”

The anti-draft demonstrations last month in new York and also elsewhere, part of a series of breeze protests planned for this year and also next, were merely the noisiest and most noticeable signs of the defiance. Less obvious but substantially more far-ranging is the exodus the young american to Canada. Follow to the private teams in Canada that help the exodus, some 10,000 men have slipped across the border to evade the draft, selecting to live as aliens and to cut themselves of native friends and also family and also all points familiar; if they go back to the unified States, they challenge jail sentences of as much as 15 years. The justice Department claims that just 200 men have been indicted because that fleeing to Canada, but the government numbers are misleading. Through the ponderous legal machine of Selective Service, that takes almost a year to obtain an indictment and also a fugitive warrant with the courts, and the greatest circulation to Canada has come in the past few months.

Altogether the Selective company System perform 15,310 “delinquents,” males who have not responded to call or post from their draft boards. Part 2,000 of this belong to a loose national federation the draft-defying teams the one in Chicago is dubbed CADRE (Chicago Area breeze Resisters.) The members have actually pledged us to walk to prison quite than right into the Army; they have turned in your draft cards and also are awaiting indictment. Slowly, yet with enhancing speed, the federal government is obliging them. In the budget year 1966, part 650 young men were indicted because that violations that the Selective company laws; in budget 1967 the number doubled. Convictions have doubled too — indigenous 372 in 1966 come 748 in 1967. Critical month the justice Department, declaring that prosecutions were “at one all-time high,” said it was forming a “special unit” to prosecute more vigorously. There is still one more factor in gauging the resistance: an ext than 22,000 men (not counting veterans) have won group as conscientious objectors. The price of conscientious objection is 70 percent greater than it was during human being War II. The Selective organization people attempt to soften this by mentioning that over there are only 1.7 conscientious objectors because that every 1,000 registrants, and also they add that only 4 men in every 10,000 registrants are delinquent. The crucial word right here is registrants. By measuring the resisters versus all registrants, the government manages to disguise the magnitude of the phenomenon. The nation’s 35 million registrants include all guys in the joined States between the periods of 18 and also 45, many of whom space overage, disabled, or deferred — that is, no eligible for the draft anyway.

But even if one accepts the official figures at face value, the difficulty is still a major one. The Selective organization System, like many operations of our Government, relies to a large degree on spontaneous cooperation; compulsion can go simply so far. Now, for the an initial time in living memory, a sizable variety of Americans space refusing to cooperate. Some, the course, are simply cowards make the efforts to save their skins. And some are so intemperate in their opposition the they may be passed off as chronic misanthropes. “The FBI,” states Stuart Byczynski, a breeze dodger currently in Toronto, “is the brand-new Gestapo, and the nation is ending up being a huge concentration camp.” but many disclose a stamin of conviction that is tough to scorn. “This is mine country, and also I love it,” says Richard Boardman, that is waiting in Chicago to be prosecuted for draft evasion, “and i will stay here and also go to jail if necessary to assist correct that mistakes. I expropriate the general framework of the law, and I accept the penalties because that breaking the law.”

The draft evaders, or “non-cooperators,” together some call themselves, vary exponentially in background. Over there are an easy Mennonite farm boys and also scholars through Ph.D.s. There are Negroes indigenous the ghetto and also boys native America’s richest families. Politically, they selection from Maoists to Bobby Kennedy democrats to Goldwater Republicans. That is possible, however, to group these diverse young guys in six major categories.

The very first is created of those males who have actually gone to prison for their anti-conscription activity. These room the upstream of draft-dodger society, the individual heroes of the resistance movement. Usual of castle is Fred Moore Jr., that was ago on the anti-war picket lines just two days after completing his two-year sentence in ~ the Allenwood commonwealth Prison Camp close to Lewisburg, Pa. Moore, a slight, clean-cut 26-year-old native Arlington, Virginia, is a Quaker and a follower of Mahatma Gandhi. The regards himself as an out-and-out pacifist and says he would not even protect himself if attacked.

In 1959 Fred Moore to be expelled indigenous the university of California because that refusing to participate in the ROTC, which to be then compulsory. He join an organization referred to as the Committee for Non-Violent activity and lived for a time top top its farm yard in Voluntown, Connecticut, helping to advanced food for the members and joining in their countless discussions of Gandhi’s principles. The went along on the organization’s “Friendship March to Cuba,” which foundered once the coast Guard intercepted its boat off Miami.

In 1962 Moore’s draft board classified him 1-A. That prompted him to apply for conscientious-objector condition (classification 1-O) therefore that rather of soldiering he can work in a civilian hospital or a social-service agency. Normally, a youth that Moore’s spiritual beliefs receive the 1-O classification relatively routinely, yet he objected to several of the phrasing in the federal government form. The crossed out the words “Supreme Being” and also substituted “God, i m sorry is the strength of love.” Moore to be investigated through the FBI and had to appear before a hear officer to describe his religious convictions. In April, 1964, he got his 1-O classification.

“I had actually a strange reaction to the notice,” Moore says. “I had no emotion of relief or gladness. Instead, I had actually the feeling that ns was a moral coward, and that ns had finished up cooperating with the Selective company System in stimulate to get special condition for myself.” He sent out his group card back to his draft board, informing it that it was participating in “the march towards totalitarianism.” He climate hit the road, lecturing on peace at university campuses almost everywhere the country. The wore sandwich boards reading, LIBERTY YES. CONSCRIPTION NO, you SHALT no KILL, and DON’T dodge THE DRAFT; protest IT.

His protesting ended in June, 1965, when two FBI men pertained to see him in ~ Pendle Hill, a Quaker study center in Pennsylvania. The government agents told him that they had been sent to offer him a last chance. They almost pleaded v him to go to Richmond, where he had been assigned by his draft board to perform his alternative service — hospital work. Moore thanked lock politely and also said no. A couple of days later he got a registered letter ordering him come surrender self at the United claims courthouse in Alexandria, Va. The did so and went on trial for draft evasion top top October 21, 1965.

On his way to the trial the picketed the White House and also distributed pacifist leaflets outside the court building. Refusing court-appointed counsel and also electing to defend himself, the told judge Oren R. Lewis that he can not plead guilty because the draft was on trial and also not he. His defense was the conscription was unconstitutional because it represented involuntary servitude, as characterized by the 13th Amendment. Moore says, “The judge was hostile at first, but then he began to realize i was sincere and trying to live follow to my beliefs. He also said so.” The trial lasted 3 hours. Moore was found guilty and sentenced to 2 years in the commonwealth penitentiary.

The youth waived his right of appeal and began to serve his time almost immediately on the Allenwood prison farm. There were 80 various other Selective service violators there at the time. “The an initial six months were the hardest,” Moore says. “I gained into an debate with a forger over a regime I want to check out on the tv set, and he knocked the end my two front teeth. After that ns learned the the idea is to do your very own time and also not bother anyone else. I operated in the prison garden in the daytime, and also at night I check out or played the guitar and sang folk songs v the various other Selective organization violators. Time wasn’t easy, but I learned to adjust to it.” In April, 1967, he was released 7 months early on automatic “good time.” He might have been released earlier, but he refused to cooperate v the parole system.

Moore today is earlier at the old stand, demonstrating against the Vietnam war and counseling opposition come the draft. He has gone to occupational as office manager for a group referred to as Quaker Action, i m sorry dispatches boatloads of clinical supplies to both North and also South Vietnam, and has married Suzanne Williams, a 19-year-old peace demonstrator who has been arrested and also jailed no less than seven times. Moore currently has burned his brand-new 1-O draft card, i m sorry was sent out to the after he gained out the jail, and also he completely expects to it is in prosecuted a 2nd and maybe even a 3rd time. He says, virtually casually, “I’m perfectly willing to walk to prison again for my beliefs.” A righteousness Department official says, “This young is either nuts or so goddamn sincere you need to respect the — yet what have the right to we do yet throw the book at the again?”

Less thank you very much and more elusive is the 2nd category of draft evaders, “the Underground.” These room the young men, registered and also unregistered, that hide the end in the ghettos and also hippie swarms of the significant American cities. No one in the federal government will even guess in ~ how plenty of of them over there are, but the central Committee for Conscientious Objectors in Philadelphia estimates that they probably number in the thousands. Absolutely they comprise a great proportion that the 15,310 Americans provided as “delinquent” by Selective Service.

Many in the Underground have been runaways and “floaters” since their late teens. The black youngsters wander native tenement to tenement in the ghettos, wherein itinerant boarders space common, and no concerns are asked. The whites room hippies or disguise themselves as hippies and also blend into the anonymity the “crash-pad” living.

In new York’s eastern Village, the secret member called Scuby was sitting in a delicatessen eating a pastrami sandwich. “Man,” he said, “there room fifty of us within 2 blocks the here.” A few minutes before, the 2 FBI men had actually passed him there is no recognizing him; lock were showing his photo to shopkeepers and asking for him through the surname of Johnson. However the picture was not recent, and Scuby now has actually a full, reddish beard and wears dark glasses.

He spoke of his background — he come from a “typical middle-class materialistic family,” and when he very first “took off,” together he put it, he join the hippie swarm in Venice, Calif. Climate he floated to other hippie settlements around the country, leave no trail and also never once telling his family where the was. “My father’s a fink,” he said. “He’d revolve me in come the feds.”

Scuby doesn’t get involved in hippie demonstrations or anti-war protests. “The idea is to play that cool,” he said, “and never do something to contact attention to yourself. Another thing you obtained to be careful around is not to gain high top top acid, because you might lose control and say miscellaneous to provide yourself away. Friend never know who’s a fink because that the feds.” Scuby expressed no convictions about pacifism or the Vietnam war. He just said, “I got better things to execute than obtain shot in ~ by a bunch that Viet Congs.”

Many the the young guys in the third major category of breeze resisters — those who leave the nation — re-superstructure Scuby’s nonideological, live-and-let-live attitude. This reporter encountered a high portion of misfits amongst the fugitives in Canada. Plenty of had records of family conflict and had moved frequently from one school to another. Practically all had actually had 2-S student deferments and hadn’t believed seriously about their an individual convictions till the 2-S to be revoked. At least a dozen youths claimed they had thought about going to jail yet had decided versus it top top the grounds the they simply weren’t approximately it.

Canada is a organic haven for these young men. Part flee come France or south America, yet most discover it easiest to cross the Canadian border, learning that Canadians top top the whole are no enthusiastic about the Vietnam war, and that Canada will certainly extradite criminals only for offenses the are additionally illegal in Canada — since Canada has no draft, breeze evasion is not a crime there. Vancouver is one entry allude for West coast evaders and Montreal because that fugitives from the east Coast. But, except for menial jobs, employment in Vancouver is tightly managed by the unions, and the use of French in Montreal gift a language difficulty for the mean American. So Toronto, a cosmopolitan, English-speaking city v an American flavor, has come to be the center of the draft-dodger community.

One of the more impressive of the Toronto refugees is man Phillips, a tall, blond, 22-year-old Quaker native Algona, Iowa. Phillips’s pacifism is founded in his religion, and ordinarily he would have actually had little trouble obtaining the conscientious-objector group he applied for. Yet he bewildered the 5 farmers top top his rural breeze board; he to be the very first objector they had encountered, and also they didn’t recognize what to make of him. “They referred to as me a coward and also a Communist,” Phillips says, “and when they learned I had actually covered the Selma, Alabama, civil-rights march as a photographer, lock said, ‘Oh, so you went under there to assist those niggers.’ i told castle I’d go to Vietnam together a combat photographer, something so i wouldn’t have to kill, however they didn’t believe me. For the very first time in my life I broke down and cried.”

Phillips filed one appeal and went for this reason far as to report for his preinduction physics examination. He spent the night in a barracks at ft Des Moines, where the various other draftees — till they were quit by an officer — do the efforts forcibly to cut him native head come toe. That determined Phillips. That married his fiancée, additionally a Quaker, and they left instantly for Canada. Today his wife, Laura, is a social worker in the Toronto slums, and also Phillips is a photographer for an firm of the Canadian Government.

Another young male who made his decision under duress is 22-year-old Michael müller (not his actual name). A student at pen State and also the City college of new York, Miller developed such strong convictions around the U.S. Authorized in Vietnam the he refuse to cooperate through the Selective service — also though he has actually a physical impairment that probably would have actually kept him out of the military anyway. He decided to go to jail, and his father, a bombardier in the army Air Corps in world War II, referred to as him a Communist and also kicked him out of his house. Then Miller’s wife, that was pregnant, said him that his going come jail would be unfair come her, so they went to Canada. Müller genuinely grieves about his irreversible exile indigenous the joined States. “I miss being out of the mainstream,” the says. “I miss not being able to walk to my parents’ twenty-fifth wedding anniversary and also my sister’s wedding. I miss not being able come go home again.”

But Miller’s perspective is not a common one in Toronto. Many of the draft dodgers there have actually turned versus their nation completely. They make statements prefer “They ought to tear down the Statue of Liberty due to the fact that it doesn’t median anything anymore.” The left-wing breeze dodgers say they don’t want to live in the United says anymore since it has become a “fascist dictatorship no much better than Hitler’s Germany.” The right-wingers to speak they have fled native “a collectivist tyranny no far better than Soviet Russia.”

Typical of the last is 20-year-old Stuart Byczynski, a thin, intense, balding young male who put on glasses. Byczynski to be born right into a rigid, Catholic, new Deal-Democrat family members in Parkville, Maryland, yet was in continuous revolt against his parents’ spiritual and political beliefs. The left the Catholic Church and became a Unitarian as soon as he was 17, and in 1964 the campaigned because that Barry Goldwater and other conservative Republicans.

“I believe in the flexibility of the individual,” that said, “and big Government in the United says is acquisition away every our freedoms. The bleeds united state to fatality with taxes, that tells us at what period we can drink whiskey and also drive a car, that spends a lot of money forcing man-made racial equality. Also while i was tho in high school, I chose no federal government was going come tell me ns couldn’t go after my liked profession and would have to sleep top top cots through a lot of other people. My sole reason for going to college was to stop the draft as long as possible with a 2-S student deferment.”

At the university of Baltimore, the did fine for 4 semesters, but then fell from the top 3rd of his class and also lost his deferment. That filed one appeal however only to get a hold-up until May, 1967, when he had actually scheduled his flight throughout the border. On may 21 he rented one apartment in Baltimore and moved out of his parents’ home, informing them that he want to live alone for the summer. On might 28 he take it a circuitous path to the Baltimore bus terminal and, to silver paper the FBI, purchase a round-trip ticket. But the FBI never ever came close to him. He come in Montreal on may 29, commemorated his 20th birthday alone at the YMCA, and also then took an additional bus to Toronto. Over there he contacted the Toronto Anti-Draft Programme, which offers legal advice, money, room and board, and also an employment company for freshly arrived fugitives native the U.S. The organization, run by American breeze dodgers yet financed mostly by Canadian tranquility groups, recommend him come go ago to Buffalo, brand-new York, through plane, and also then reenter Canada together an immigrant with the Toronto airport. That did so and then said his parents what he had actually done. “Their reaction,” that said, “was ‘Sob, sob, where have we unable to do wrong?” today Byczynski is functioning as a reporter because that a newspaper in a small city in Ontario. The makes much less money 보다 he go in the joined States, but, he says, “the taxes space lower, and this nation is freer.” says a former employer in Baltimore: “I’m not surprised at what Stuart did. He always was trying to escape indigenous reality.”

The battle resisters in the fourth group do not normally enjoy the luxury of escape. These space the young males who have already entered the armed forces and then decided they couldn’t fight in Vietnam. Their just recourse is come desert (which very couple of do), or to use for a conscientious-objector discharge (which room rare; the army approves less than five percent that the applications). If the young male persists, the usual an outcome is a prison term because that disobeying orders. The department of Defense says it has about 400 C.O. Applications pending. The main Committee because that Conscientious Objectors insists, ~ above the communication of its post from servicemen seeking legitimate help, that the number is lot higher.

One that the many interesting cases in this category affiliated Michael Wittels, who now is 28 years old and a successful young artist in Philadelphia. Wittels, never ever a tranquility activist or protester throughout his years at Cheltenham High School and the Philadelphia college of Art, join the military Reserves and was assigned to a quartermaster company in 1962. His 6 months of energetic duty at fort Knox, Kentucky, to be uneventful. He to be a great soldier and was advocated to squad leader as soon as the firm took hefty weapons maintain at ft Polk, La. “But suddenly,” Wittels told me, “the whole thing jumped up and also hit me in the face. An instructor was demonstrating a new rifle, and he said, ‘This weapon can tear a hole the size of a fist in a man.’ in ~ that minute I knew I can never death — that ns was a conscientious objector in ~ heart.”

Wittels finished his energetic duty, but he continued to brood about his convictions, also while faithful attending his make reservation meetings. Finally, in June, 1965, the sought legitimate advice indigenous the Friends peace Committee and also learned that he could apply for a conscientious-objector discharge. He painstakingly filled out the complicated application, and also on august 25, 1965, that turned that in come his company commander.

Six month went by and Wittels heard nothing around the application, though he preserved writing to all the greater reserve echelons. In January, 1966, he stopped going come reserve meetings and returned his army pay checks. In March, the application was turn down. Then he was steeling from Pfc. To exclusive and, as a punishment, was ordered to report to ft Knox for 45 days of active duty. The did so, getting here in civilian clothes. He defined his place to his new company commander, a young negro officer named Capt. Albert Thurmond. “He was very kind and polite,” claimed Wittels, “but that didn’t know what to do about me, because I told him I could not put on mine uniform and also serve. He sent me to watch the adjutant general and also two chaplains. They all tried to speak me right into taking the easy means out by placing on mine uniform and serving the forty-five days. Castle didn’t also seem come listen as soon as I told castle I would not retreat from mine stand.”

After three days, according to Wittels, Captain Thurmond referred to as him into the orderly room, sighed, and gave him a straight order to put on his uniform and also report because that duty. When Wittels respectfully refused, the was taken to the stockade, whereby a sergeant called him, “We’ve had actually your type in right here before, and also we’re walking to rest you.” He to be stripped of his shirt, shoes and socks and locked in “The Box,” a 6-by-8-foot isolation cell with nothing in it but a Bible and also a stole slab because that a bunk. The guards kept him standing until 2 a.m., when he was sent out to take a shower. When he got earlier to the cell, his blanket was gone. It was a cold night, but a safety said, “You don’t desire that blanket. It states U.S. Military on it.”

Wittels says he was in “The Box” for 3 days, throughout which he to be fed bread, dried cereal, and cabbage. On the third day the confinement officer, a six-foot, seven-inch negro captain called Wyatt Minton, involved see him. “Just placed on the consistent stockade tiredness shirt, no your uniform, and also I’ll let you the end of here. I require the space.” Wittels agreed, and was placed in a 24-man cell through the basic prison population. There to be eight various other C.O.’s in the stockade. 2 weeks later he went on trial for disobeying his company commander’s direct order to placed on his uniform. He was discovered guilty and sentenced to six months at difficult labor. Wittels was returned to a solitary cell on the grounds the “he would contaminate the other prisoners.” The quarantine didn’t work. The various other prisoners and even the guards pertained to admire Wittels’s uncomplaining courage, and they smuggled food and also books in to him. Six weeks later Captain Minton sent for Wittels. “I hear you’re a damned fine artist,” that said. “I’m going to let friend out roughly the base to do paints to decorate the stockade. Every you need to do is authorize a statement saying you will do it obey stockade rules.” Wittels signed the statement.

On February 6, 1967, the finish of his sentence, Wittels was released native the stockade. The went back to his fort Knox firm where one officer again ordered that to placed on his uniform and also report to a duty station. Again Wittels refused, and he was returned to the stockade. This time Wittels faced a basic court-martial and also a sentence of 5 years at ft Leavenworth. He was made a maximum-custody prisoner, regularly with handcuffs and also an armed guard.

But there is no his understanding a series of occasions were occurring far from fort Knox. Wittels’s mother had actually appealed come Congressman Richard S. Schweiker, a Republican indigenous Pennsylvania, that demanded that the army investigate. The army told him it was handling Wittels’s brand-new application for a conscientious-objector’s discharge. And then a hear officer ruled the the charge pending versus Wittels was unsupported. He was released to carry out noncombatant duties on the base. After 26 job Wittels was sent home. In July, 1967, he got a general discharge “under honorable problems … by reason of conscientious objection.” later on one the the ft Knox stockade guards composed to him: “What girlfriend went through here took much more guts than going to Vietnam.”

Wittels, the course, might have avoided his ordeal if that had obtained conscientious-objector status prior to going into the Army. This type of battle resistance is perfectly legal. The an ext than 22,000 males who have been classified together C.O.’s by your draft boards make up the fifth and sixth categories of war resisters — the two kinds of legit C.O.’s recognized by the Selective organization System.

One sort is the males who space classified 1-A-O. The 1-A-O’s enter the army as draftees along with the 1-A’s, but they space not compelled to manage weapons, and they perform just noncombatant duties, typically in the medical Corps. Members of churches such together the Seventh-Day Adventist virtually automatically obtain 1-A-O status from their draft boards when they use for it; others have to prove your case. Every 1-A-O’s — there room 4,500 of lock — take their simple training in 2 400-man carriers in the army Medical Training facility at ft Sam Houston in mountain Antonio, Tex. They room treated the same as various other soldiers, other than that they get no tools training. After training, many are assigned as medical corpsmen with military units in the field, consisting of Vietnam. Col. C. C. Pixley, commander of the army Medical maintain Center, says, “These people are amongst the ideal soldiers ns have ever known.”

Sgt. Richard Enders epitomizes the C.O. In the Army. A Seventh-Day Adventist from Longview, Washington, Enders to be classified 1-A-O and sent to fort Sam Houston. From there he visited Vietnam and was assigned come the 346th medical Dispensary in deserve to Tho, the heart of the Viet Cong-infested Mekong Delta. Enders not only tended hurt GI’s however consistently volunteered for explorations on which teams of army Medical Corps specialists enter the landscape under heavy guard and treat the civilian population in Vietnamese villages. There was just one various other C.O. In Enders’s outfit, but, he says, “no one believed of us as being various from anyone else.”

Getting to be a 1-O, the other form of legit conscientious objector, is a bit more complicated. The 1-O, after that receives that category from his draft board, does no serve in the army but put in two years of so-called “alternative service” together a civilian. The kind of work he go is severely limited and should be approved by the draft board. Normally it’s duty of some type in a civilian hospital or social-service agency. Return 1-O’s outnumber 1-A-O’s by about four come one, many draft boards room loath to provide the classification. Some refuse to give 1-O’s at all, even to bona fide members that pacifist religions; the feeling is the anyone taking such a stand is one of two people a coward or a traitor. The conscientious objector’s only recourse climate is to appeal. Appeals have the right to be expensive, and also those who execute not have actually the money often end up being draft dodgers even though they are anxious and willing to meet their obligation by doing legit “alternative service.” An official of the American Friends company Committee remarks that a big proportion of draft evasion is precipitation by “senile, bumbling, bigoted draft-board members.”

When Robert Whitford, a young Quaker that Madison, Wisconsin, obtained his 1-O classification, his draft board asked the to list three options of job-related assignments. If these were no satisfactory, the draft board itself would make one assignment. They welcomed Whitford’s an initial choice, however. Since of his expertise of Spanish, he want to work-related with Casa Central, a social-service agency for the Spanish-speaking poor of Chicago. “I’m lucky,” he said. “Most breeze boards will grant nothing yet bedpan managing in hospitals.” Whitford it s okay $400 a month for to run an “outpost” because that Casa main in a Cuban-Puerto Rican neighborhood. “Many of my friends in the resistance think the I’m copping out. They say ns should have gone to jail. Why is going come jail better than law something constructive because that society?”

As Whitford’s comment suggests, the war resisters are frequently in problem with every other. The 1-O’s consider the 1-A-O’s to it is in “cop outs,” and the resistance people, those who are awaiting jail sentences, feel similarly about the 1-O’s. Every three groups revile the Underground and the refugees in Canada as lacking courage and also “thinking just of themselves instead of the issues.” The resisters who follow Gandhi’s teachings think that the only workable program is to fill the jails through sincere, educated, nonviolent war resisters who peacefully turn in your draft cards — till troubled publicly opinion forces the federal government to change its policies. They complain the the government is not cooperating. One resistance youth said me, “The justice Department can arrest and convict two thousand of united state tomorrow, however they’re waiting until after the 1968 elections, for this reason the civilization don’t understand how countless of us there are.” Assistant Attorney basic Fred Vinson Jr. Calls this nonsense. The says, “We’re prosecuting these situations to the full extent of the law — yet it take away time if we’re going to give these guys the full protection that the law.” some judges provide light sentence or probation come convicted draft violators; others throw the publication at them with up to 10 years in jail. A commonwealth judge in Georgia freshly meted out two consecutive five-year sentence to Clifton Haywood, the most heavy penalty provided to a Selective company violator since World battle I.

There is no question that resistance is dispersing — especially among the an ext highly educated. Jeremy Mott, a Harvard college student from Ridgewood, new Jersey, was safely at occupational in a Church the the Brethren hospital together a 1-O, once he shed his draft map publicly in new York and helped found the group called Chicago Area draft Resisters. That is currently awaiting his arrest and jail sentence.

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David McCarroll, that has degrees from Princeton and also the college of Virginia, is in medical training together a 1-A-O at fort Sam Houston. In the presence of his commanding officer he told me, “I’m totally against the war in Vietnam, and also if I’m sent out there I’ll have to comprise my mind about going to jail instead.”

Even several of the runaways to Canada are returning to the United states in stimulate to make a much less comfortable, an ext forceful protest. When I interviewed 25-year-old Tom Zimmerman of Pittsburg, Kansas, he was to teach in a Toronto high school and seemed happy in his life the exile. But on December 5 he showed up in the U.S. Attorney’s office in Kansas City. He could get up to 5 years in jail for breeze evasion, yet he probably will no be prosecuted because that international flight to prevent federal start (an additional 10 years), because he changed voluntarily. “I feeling impotent in Canada,” Zimmerman says. “Being up there just developed tension for me, because all of us in Toronto were the end of the mainstream of protest. I desire to keep my conscience, so ns am prepared to walk to prison.”

As a justice Department main told me, “I know most Americans wouldn’t agree, and also certainly the fighting males in Vietnam don’t think so, yet these boys, some of our brightest young men, represent the agony of our age.”

Click to review the article, “Hell, No, us Won’t Go!” from the January 27, 1968, problem of The Saturday night Post.

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