The adhering to is a nottard of terms generally used in relationship to public speaking and byprofessional speakers.

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AabstractA summary of a magazine or newspaper article, written by someone other than the initial author.abstract wordsWords the refer to principles or concepts.acceptance speechA decided that offers thanks because that a gift, an award, or part other form of publicly recognition.acronymA word written of the initial letter or components of a collection of words.active listeningGiving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to know the speaker"s allude of view.ad hominem fallacyAn attempt to discredit a position by attack the people who favor it.adrenalineA hormone released right into the bloodstream in response to physics or psychological stress.after-dinner speechA brief, frequently humorous, ceremonial speech, presented after a meal, that offers a post without asking for radical transforms in attitude or action.agenda-setting functionThe job-related of informative speaking in elevating topics come attention and also creating a feeling of their importance.agreementThe 3rd stage in the persuasive procedure requires the listeners not only accept the speaker’s recommendations but remember their factors for doing so.alliterationRepetition that the early stage consonant sound of close or adjoining words.amplificationThe arts of arising ideas by finding methods to restate lock in a speech.analogical persuasionCreating a strategic perspective ~ above a topic by relating it come something about which the audience has solid positive or an unfavorable feelings.analogical reasoningReasoning in i beg your pardon a speaker compares two similar cases and infers the what is true because that the very first case is also true because that the second.analogous color schemeColors surrounding on the shade wheel; used in a presentation help to suggest both differences and close relationships amongst the materials represented.analogyA connection established in between two otherwise dissimilar principles or things.animationThe way objects enter and/or departure a PowerPoint slide.antithesisA language an approach that combines opposing facets in the very same sentence or adjoining sentences.appreciative listeningListening for pleasure or enjoyment.appreciative phasePhase of listening in i m sorry we enjoy the beauty of messages, responding to such components as the simplicity, balance, and proportion the speeches and also the eloquence of their language.argumentsArrangements that proofs designed come answer vital questions the arise in persuasive designs.articulationThe physical manufacturing of certain speech sounds.assimilationThe tendency of listeners to analyze the location of a speaker v whom castle agree as closer to their very own views than they actually are.atlasA publication of maps.attitudeA framework of mind in favor of or protest to a person, policy, belief, institution, topic, etc.audience-centerednessKeeping the audience foremost in mind at every action of decided preparation and also presentation.audience demographicsObservable attributes of listeners, consisting of age, gender, education level, group affiliations, and also sociocultural backgrounds, the the speaker considers as soon as adapting come an audience.audience dynamicsThe motivations, attitudes, beliefs, and also values that affect the behavior of listeners.autocratic leaderA leader who provides decisions there is no consultation, worries orders or gives direction, and controls the members that the group through the usage of rewards or punishments.award presentationA speech of tribute the recognizes accomplishments of the award recipient, defines the nature that the award, and also describes why the recipient qualifies for the award.awarenessThis an initial stage in the persuasive procedure includes knowing around a problem, paying attention to it, and understanding just how it affects ours lives.

BbalanceAchieving a balance amongst the significant parts of a presentation.bandwagonA fallacy which assumes that since something is popular, that is therefore good, correct, or desirable.bar graphA graph that uses vertical or horizontal bars to display comparisons amongst two or an ext items.begging the questionAssuming the an argument has been confirmed without in reality presenting the evidence.beliefsIdeas we express about subjects that may describe our attitudes towards them.bibliographyA list of every the sources used in prepare a speech.Bill that RightsThe very first ten amendments come the United claims Constitution.biographical aidA reference work that offers information around people.bodyThe middle part of a speech, offered to develop the main ideas.body languageCommunication achieved using facial expressions, eye contact, movements, and also gestures.bookmarkA feature in a Web internet browser that stores web links to internet sites for this reason they have the right to be quickly revisited.boomerang effectAn audience’s hostile reaction come a decided advocating too lot or also radical change.brainstormingA method of generating concepts by complimentary association that words and thoughts.brief exampleA certain instance depicting a much more general idea.briefingA short, informative presentation provided in an business setting.bulleted listA presentation assist that highlights themes through presenting castle in a list of quick statements.burden of proofThe obligation encountering a persuasive speak to prove that a readjust from current policy is necessary.

Ccall numberA number used in libraries to classify books and also periodicals and also to indicate where they deserve to be uncovered on the shelves.call the questionA movement that proposes to end the discussion on a motion and to carry it come a vote.catalogueA listing of every the books, periodicals, and other sources owned by a library.categorical designThe use of herbal or classic divisions within a topic as a method of structuring an many information speech.causal orderA method of speech organization in which the main points present a cause-effect relationship.causal reasoningReasoning that seeks to create the relationship in between causes and also effects.causation designA pattern for an many information speech that shows exactly how one condition generates, or is produced by, another.central ideaA one-sentence statement the sums increase or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech.ceremonial speaking(ceremonial speech) Speaking the celebrates unique occasions. Common forms space speeches the tribute, inspiration, eulogies, toasts, introduction, making and also accepting awards, and also the after-dinner speech. Their deeper function is to share identities and also reinforce values that unite civilization into communities.channelThe means by i beg your pardon a message is communicated.chartA visual assist that summarizes a big block the information, generally in perform form.chronological designPattern that speech company that adheres to a succession of important events in relating the background of a topic or predicting the future.chronological orderA method of speech company in which the key points follow a time pattern.claimsConclusions that go beyond factual declaration to make judgments about their subjects.clichéA trite or overused expression.clip artPictures and symbols that represent typical objects, processes, and also ideas.clutterDiscourse that takes many more words 보다 are essential to express an idea.co-active approachA means of approaching wake up audiences in which the speaker attempts to create goodwill, emphasizes shared values, and also sets modest purposes for persuasion.cognitive restructuringThe procedure of replacing an unfavorable thoughts v positive, constructive ones.collaborative trouble solvingIn team communication, method that gathers participants native separate locations of the general public or private sectors for your input top top a problem.commemorative speechA speech that pays tribute to a person, a team of people, an institution, or one idea.communication apprehensionAnxiety or are afraid experienced before and also during public speaking.communication environmentThe setup in which communication occurs, including both physical and psychological factors.comparative advantages orderA an approach of organizing persuasive speeches in which each main allude explains why a speaker"s equipment to a problem is preferable to various other proposed solutions.comparative designA pattern because that an much information speech that relates an unfamiliar topic to miscellaneous the audience currently knows or understands.comparisonA statement of the similarities amongst two or more people, events, ideas, etc.comparison and also contrastAn informative speech design that points out similarities and also differences between subjects or ideas.competenceThe speaker’s figure of gift informed, intelligent, and also well prepared.complementary color schemeColors opposite one one more on the shade wheel; supplied in a presentation help to imply tension and opposition among various elements.comprehensive phasePhase of hearne in i m sorry we focus on, understand, and interpret spoken messages.comprehensive listeningListening to understand the article of a speaker.computer-assisted presentationThe use of advertising presentation software program to join audio, visual, text, graphic, and animated components.conceptA belief, theory, idea, notion, principle, or the like.concrete wordsWords that describe tangible objects.confusion the fact and opinionA misuse of evidence in persuasive speak in which an individual opinions are readily available as though they to be objective facts, or facts room dismissed as though they were mere opinion.connectiveA indigenous or expression that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them.connotative meaningThe emotional, subjective, personal definition that certain words deserve to evoke in listeners.consensusA team decision that is acceptable to all members that the group.constructive listeningThe role of the listener in the development of meaning. Entails discovering the speaker’s intention, tracing out the ramifications and consequences of the message, and applying the blog post to one’s life.contrastA statement of the differences among two or an ext people, events, ideas, etc.contrast effectA tendency by listener to distort the location of a speaker through whom lock disagree and to analyze those positions as even an ext distant indigenous their own opinions than they actually are.conversational qualityPresenting a decided so it sounds spontaneous no matter how plenty of times it has actually been rehearsed.coordinationThe necessity that statements same in prestige be put on the very same level in one outline.creating typical groundA an approach in i m sorry a speaker connects self or herself through the values, attitudes, or experience of the audience.credibilityThe audience"s perception of even if it is a speak is qualified to speak top top a offered topic.crescendo endingA conclusion in i beg your pardon the speech builds to a zenith of power and also intensity.criteriaStandards on i beg your pardon a judgment or decision have the right to be based.critical listeningThe careful evaluation and testimonial of article content.critical thinkingFocused, organized thinking around such points as the reasonable relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and also the differences between fact and also opinion.critiqueAn testimonial of a speech.cultural gridlockOccurs when the social differences in a group are so extensive that the differing agendas, priorities, customs, and procedures produce tensions that block constructive discussion.cultural sensitivityThe respectful, appreciative awareness the the diversity within an audience.culturetypesTerms the express the values and goals the a group’s culture.

DdebateThe clash of opposing ideas, evaluations and policy propose on a subject of concern.decoding processThe procedure by which the listener determines the definition of the speaker’s message and decides the speaker’s intent.deductive reasoningA form of reasoning that begins with a generally accepted truth, associate an worry with that truth, and also draws a conclusion based upon the connection.definitionA translate into of one unfamiliar word into understandable terms.deliberationAllowing all sides come express your opinions before a decision is made.delivery cuesDirections in a speaking synopsis to assist a speaker remember just how she or he wants to deliver vital parts of the speech.demagoguesPolitical speakers who try to inflame feelings without regard to the accuracy or adequacy of their insurance claims in bespeak to promote their very own agendas.demographic audience analysisAudience analysis that concentrates on demographic factors such together age, gender, spiritual orientation, team membership, and also racial, ethnic, or cultural background.denotative meaningThe dictionary an interpretation or objective meaning of a word.derived credibilityThe credibility the a speaker developed by everything she or that says and also does throughout the speech.descriptionA statement that depicts a person, event, idea, and the like with clarity and vividness.designated leaderA human who is elected or appointed together leader once the group is formed.dialectA decided pattern associated with one area of the country or v a social or country background.dialogue groupA group assembled to explore the underlying presumptions of a problem yet not have to to solve it.direct quotationRepeating the exact words of an additional to support a point.discriminative phasePhase of hear in which us detect the an essential sounds of talked communication.disinformationCommunication that offers what appears to it is in information, but that in reality deceives listeners and impedes your understanding.dissolve endingA conclusion the generates emotional appeal by fading step by action to a dramatic final statement.dyadA group of 2 people.dynamismThe influence made top top listeners once they awareness a speaker together confident, decisive, and enthusiastic.

EegocentrismHolding the check out that one’s own experiences and also thoughts are the norm.either-orA fallacy that forces listeners to choose between two choices when more than two choices exist.electronic brainstormingA group method in which participants generate principles in computer system chat teams or through email.emergent leaderA group member who emerges as a leader during the group"s deliberations.empathic phasePhase of listening in which us suspend judgment, enable speakers to be heard, and try to see things from their points the view.emphatic listeningListening to administer emotional assistance for a speaker.empiricalA kind of reasoning that emphasizes the close inspection of reality.enactmentThe fourth stage of the persuasive process in which listeners take it appropriate action as the result of your agreement.encoding processThe procedure by i beg your pardon the speak combines words, tones, and also gestures to convey thought and feelings to the audience.enduring metaphorsMetaphors of inexplicable power and also popularity the are based on experience that lasts throughout time and also that crosses many cultural boundaries.enunciationThe path in which separation, personal, instance words room articulated and also pronounced in context.ethical decisionsSound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of honest standards or guidelines.ethicsThe branch of ideology that deals with concerns of right and wrong in human affairs.ethnocentrismThe id that one"s own team or culture is superior to every other groups or cultures.ethosThe name offered by Aristotle for what modern-day students of interaction refer to as credibility.eulogyA speech of tribute gift upon a person’s death.eventAnything the happens or is pertained to as happening.evidenceSupporting products used come prove or disprove something.exampleA specific case offered to highlight or to stand for a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like.expanded conversational styleA presentational top quality that, while more formal than day-to-day conversation, preservation its directness and spontaneity.expert testimonyTestimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields.explanationsA combination of facts and statistics come clarify a object or procedure mentioned in a speech.extemporaneous speechA closely prepared and rehearsed speech the is gift from a brief collection of notes.extemporaneous presentation(extemporaneous speaking) A type of presentation in which a speech, although carefully prepared and practiced, is not written out or memorized.extended exampleA story, narrative, or anecdote occurred at some length to illustrate a point.eye contactDirect visual contact with the eye of another person.

GgazetteerA geography dictionary.gender stereotypingGeneralizations based on oversimplified or outmoded assumptions around gender and also gender roles.general encyclopediaA an extensive reference occupational that gives information about all branches of human being knowledge.general purposeThe vast goal the a speech.generic "he"The usage of "he" to describe both women and men.gesturesMotions that a speaker"s hand or arms throughout a speech.global plagiarismStealing a speech completely from a single source and passing that off together one"s own.good formA primary principle that structure, based on simplicity, symmetry, and orderliness.goodwillThe audience"s late of whether the speaker has actually the ideal interests of the audience in mind.graphA visual help used to display statistical trends and patterns.graphicsVisual depictions of information.great expectation fallacyThe mistake idea that significant change have the right to be completed by a single persuasive effort.groupthinkOccurs as soon as a single, uncritical frame of psychic dominates team thinking and prevents the full, objective evaluation of particular problems.

Hhabitual pitchThe level at which people speak most frequently.hasty generalizationAn error in reasoning from particular instances, in i beg your pardon a speaker jumps to a basic conclusion on the communication of inadequate evidence.hearingThe vibration the sound tide on the eardrums and also the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain.hidden agendaA set of unstated individual goals that may problem with the purposes of the group as a whole.hypothetical exampleAn instance that describes an imagine or fictitious situation or event.

IidentificationA procedure in which speakers look for to produce a bond v the audience through emphasizing typical values, goals, and also experiences.ideographsWords the convey in a compressed way a group’s straightforward political confidence or system of beliefs.imageryThe usage of vivid language to create mental images of objects, actions, or ideas.immediacyA top quality of successful communication achieved when the speaker and audience suffer a feeling of closeness.implied leaderA group member to whom other members defer due to the fact that of her or his rank, expertise, or other quality.impromptu speechA speech yielded with small or no instant preparation.inclusive languageLanguage the does not stereotype, demean, or patronize human being on the communication of gender, race, religion, disability, sex-related orientation, or other factors.incremental plagiarismFailing to offer credit for particular parts that a speech that are borrowed from other people.inflectionsChanges in the pitch or tone of a speaker"s voice.information cardsRecords of facts and ideas obtained from an article or publication used in research.informative speechA speech designed to convey knowledge and also understanding.informative valueA measure of just how much brand-new and crucial information or knowledge a decided conveys come an audience.initial credibilityThe credibility of a speaker before she or that starts come speak.inoculation effectPreparing one audience for an opposing debate by answering it prior to listeners have been exposed come it.integrityThe high quality of being ethical, honest, and also dependable.interferenceAnything the impedes the interaction of a message. Interference have the right to be external or inner to listeners.internal previewA declare in the body of the decided that lets the audience recognize what the speaker is walk to discuss next.internal summaryReminding listeners of significant points already presented in a speech prior to proceeding to brand-new ideas.introductionThe an initial part that a speech, to plan to gain the audience’s attention and also to prepare them for the remainder of the presentation.invalid analogyAn analogy in i m sorry the two cases being contrasted are not essentially alike.inversionChanging the normal order of words to make statements memorable and emphatic.invisible WebThe multitude of net databases and also other sources that are not indexed by find engines.

JjargonThe specialized or technical language of a trade, profession, or comparable group.

Kkey-word outlineAn rundown that briefly notes a speaker"s main points and supporting evidence in rough summary form.kinesicsThe study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication.

Llay testimonyInformation that is derived from the firsthand experience of simple citizens.leadershipThe capacity to influence team members so as to help attain the objectives of the group.likeablenessThe high quality of radiating goodness and also goodwill and inspiring audience affection in return.line graphA graph that supplies one or more lines come show changes in statistics gradually or space.listenerThe human being who receives the speaker"s message.listeningPaying close fist to, and making feeling of, what we hear.literal analogyA comparison made in between subjects within the same field.logosThe name used by Aristotle for the logical appeal the a speaker. The two major elements the logos room evidence and also reasoning.

MmagnificationA speaker’s selecting and also emphasizing details qualities of a subject to anxiety the worths they represent.main motionA proposal that would commit a group to some details action or declaration.main pointsThe major points occurred in the body of a speech.maintenance needsCommunicative actions crucial to keep interpersonal relationships in a small group.malapropismsLanguage errors that happen when a indigenous is perplexed with another word the sounds favor it.manuscript speechA speech that is composed out word because that word and also read to the audience.markingAdding a sex reference once none is needed-e.g., "a woman doctor."master that ceremoniesA human being who coordinates an occasion or program, sets its mood, introduces participants, offers transitions, and also may additionally present awards.maximsBrief and an especially apt sayings.meanThe average value that a group of numbers.medianThe center number in a team of number arranged from highest possible to lowest.memorized message presentationsSpeeches that space committed come memory and delivered word for word.mental dialogue v the audienceThe psychological give-and-take between speaker and also listener during a persuasive speech.messageWhatever a speak communicates to someone else.metaphorAn implicit comparison, not presented with the word "like" or "as," in between two things that room essentially different yet have actually something in common.metasearch engineA search aid that sends a researcher"s request to numerous search engines in ~ the exact same time.mirror questionsQuestions the repeat component of a previous an answer to encourage further discussion.modeThe number the occurs most frequently in a group of numbers.modelAn object, usually developed to scale, the represents an additional object in detail.monotoneA consistent pitch or tone of voice.Monroe"s encouraged sequenceA technique of organizing persuasive speeches that seek instant action. The 5 steps the the urged sequence room attention, need, satisfaction, visualization, and also action.motionFormal proposal for team consideration.motivated succession designA persuasive speech architecture that proceeds through arousing attention, demonstrating a need, to solve the need, visualizing results, and also calling for action.motivationInternal pressures that impel action and direct human actions toward details goals.mountain graphA sport of a line graph in which various colors are supplied to to fill in the areas above and below the line(s).move to amendA parliamentary relocate that uses the possibility to change a motion presently under discussion.multimedia presentationA speech that uses computer system software to incorporate several kinds of intuitive and/or audio aids in the exact same talk.multisided presentationA decided in which the speaker’s position is contrasted favorably to other positions.myth the the meanThe deceptive use of statistical averages in speeches.mythosA form of proof that connects a subject to the culture and legacy of a group through the use of narratives.

Nname-callingThe usage of language come defame, demean, or degrade people or groups.narrativeA story offered to illustrate some vital truth around a speaker’s topic.needThe first basic problem in assessing a question of policy: Is over there a serious difficulty or require that needs a change from current policy?non sequitur fallacyA deductive error developing when conclusions are attracted improperly indigenous the premises the precede them.nonverbal communicationCommunication based upon a person"s usage of voice and body, rather than on the use of words.

OobjectAnything the is visible, tangible, and stable in form.onomatopoeiaThe usage of words the sound prefer the topics they signify.open-ended questionsQuestions that allow respondents come answer but they want.optimum pitchThe level at which world can produce their the strongest voice with minimal effort and that permits variation up and down the musical scale.oral reportA speech presenting the findings, conclusions, decisions, etc., the a tiny group.orderA continuous pattern supplied to build a speech.

Ppanel discussionA structured conversation ~ above a offered topic amongst several civilization in front of an audience.parallel constructionWording an outline’s key points in the same way in order come emphasize their importance and to assist the audience psychic them.parallelismThe comparable arrangement that a pair or collection of connected words, phrases, or sentences.paraphraseTo restate or summary an author"s principles in one"s very own words.parliamentary procedureA collection of formal rule that creates an bespeak of organization for meetings and encourages the orderly, fair, and full factor to consider of proposals throughout group deliberation.participative leaderA leader who seeks input from team members and also gives castle an active duty in decision-making.patchwork plagiarismStealing principles or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one"s own.pathosThe name provided by Aristotle for what modern-day students of interaction refer to together emotional appeal.pauseA temporary break in the vocal delivery of a speech.peer testimonyTestimony native ordinary world with first-hand endure or insight on a topic.periodical databaseA research help that catalogues posts from a big number of journals or magazines.personalizeTo existing one"s concepts in human being terms the relate in part fashion come the suffer of the audience.personificationA figure of decided in which nonhuman or abstract topics are given human qualities.persuasionThe art of convincing rather to give favorable fist to our suggest of view.persuasive speechA speech designed to adjust or reinforce the audience"s attitudes, ideas or actions.pictographsOn a chart, a visual photo symbolizing the information it represents.pie graphA graph that highlights segments of a circle come show an easy distribution patterns.pitchThe place of a human being voice ~ above the musical scale.plagiarismPresenting one more person"s language or ideas as one"s own.planThe second basic issue in examining a inquiry of policy: If there is a trouble with present policy, walk the speaker have actually a setup to resolve the problem?positive nervousnessControlled nervousness the helps energize a speak for she or his presentation.post hoc fallacyA deductive error in which one occasion is assumed to be the reason of an additional simply since the an initial preceded the second.postpone consideration(move to postpone consideration) A motion that defers discussion until some mentioned time when important information will certainly be available.practicalityThe third an easy issue in examining a question of policy: will certainly the speaker"s setup solve the problem? will certainly it create brand-new and an ext serious problems?precisionUsing info that is closely and carefully pertained to the details purpose and context that a speech; specifically important when a subject varies extensively in application.preliminary bibliographyA perform compiled early in the research procedure of works that look as if they could contain beneficial information about a speech topic.preliminary tuning effectThe result of vault speeches or other situational factors in predisposing one audience to respond positively or negatively to a speech.preparation outlineA detailed outline arisen during the process of speech preparation that contains the title, specific purpose, central idea, introduction, key points, subpoints, connectives, conclusion, and also bibliography that a speech.prepersuasive functionThe means in i m sorry informative speaking forms listeners’ perceptions, preparing them for later on persuasive speeches ~ above a topic.PREP formulaAn outlining method for an immediate speech: state a point, provide a reason or example, and restate the point.presentationThe plot of providing a speech to an audience, completely the an abilities of nonverbal communication, particularly body language, with the speech content.presentationA PowerPoint document containing every the slides because that a offered speech.presentation aidsSupplemental materials used to improve the effectiveness and clarity of a presentation.prestige testimonyInformation coming from a human who is very regarded however not necessarily an professional on a topic.previewThe component of the arrival that identify the key points to be emerged in the body of the speech and presents review of the decided to follow.principle the closureThe require for a satisfactory end or conclusion come a speech.principle of proximityThe idea the things arising together with time or room should be presented in the bespeak in i m sorry they normally happen.principle of similarityThe rule that prefer things must be group together.probesQuestions that ask an experienced to sophisticated on a response.problem-cause-solution orderA an approach of arranging persuasive speeches in which the an initial main allude identifies a problem, the 2nd main allude analyzes the causes of the problem, and the 3rd main point presents a equipment to the problem.problem-solution designA persuasive speech pattern in which listeners are very first persuaded the they have actually a problem and also then are presented how to deal with it.problem-solution orderA method of speech company in which the first main point deals v the visibility of a problem and the 2nd main suggest presents a equipment to the problem.problem-solving little groupA small group created to deal with a specific problem.procedural needsRoutine "housekeeping" actions necessary for the effective conduct of organization in a small group.processA systematic collection of actions that leads to a specific an outcome or product.pronunciationThe usage of exactly sounds and also of appropriate stress or interval on rate in speak words.proofAn interpretation of evidence that provides a good reason for listeners come agree through the speaker.proxemicsThe study of just how human beings use space during communication.

QqualifiersWords that imply the level of to trust a speaker has actually in the conclusion the his or she argument.question of factA question about the fact or falsity of an assertion.question the policyA question about whether a particular course of action should or should not be taken.question of valueA question about the worth, rightness, morality, and so soon of one idea or action.quoting out of contextQuoting a declare in such a method as to distort its definition by removed the statement native the words and phrases bordering it.

RrateThe speed at i beg your pardon a human being speaks.reasoningThe procedure of drawing a conclusion ~ above the basis of evidence.reasoning native principleReasoning the moves indigenous a basic principle come a certain conclusion.reasoning from particular instancesReasoning that moves from specific facts come a basic conclusion.receiver apprehensionFear of misinterpreting, inadequately handling and/or not being maybe to readjust psychologically to messages sent out by others.recencyEnsuring the the information in a speech is the recent that deserve to be provided.red herring fallacyThe usage of irrelevant material to draw away attention.reference workA occupational that synthesizes a huge amount of related information for easy accessibility by researchers.reflective-thinking methodA five-step technique for directing conversation in a problem-solving tiny group.refutative designA persuasive speech architecture in i beg your pardon the speak tries to raise doubt about, damage, or damage an the contrary position.reinforcerA comment or action that urges further interaction from someone being interviewed.reliabilityThe trustworthiness the information vital to the credibility the a speech.reluctant testimonyHighly credible form of supporting material in which resources of proof speak against their obvious self-interest.reluctant witnessesThose who sell reluctant testimony; i.e., they speak against their obvious self-interest.repetitionReiteration of the exact same word or set of words in ~ the start or end of succeeding clauses or sentences.research interviewAn interview carried out to gather information for a speech.research overviewA listing of the key sources of info that might be used in a speech and of the significant ideas from each source.residual messageWhat a speaker desires the audience to remember ~ it has forgotten whatever else in a speech.responsible knowledgeAn understanding of the significant features, issues, experts, latest developments, and also local applications pertinent to a topic.rhetorical questionsQuestions that have a self-evident answer, or the provoke curiosity the the speech climate proceeds come satisfy.rhythmThe sample of sound in a speech developed by the an option and setup of words.Robert’s rules of OrderThe authoritative, timeless "bible" of houses of parliament procedure.

Ssans-serif fontA typeface with straight edges top top the letters.scale questionsQuestions that need responses at fixed intervals follow me a scale of answers.search aidA program offered to find information top top the World broad Web.search engineA search help that indexes net pages and checks them because that sites that complement a researcher"s request.secondA motion must obtain a "second" prior to group conversation can proceed. Assures that an ext than one member desire to have actually the motion considered.self-awareness inventoryA series of inquiries that a speaker can ask come develop technique to a speech of introduction.sequence chartVisual illustrations the the various stages of a process.sequential designA pattern for an informative speech that presents the steps associated in the process being demonstrated.serif fontA typeface through rounded edges on the letters.sexismAllowing gender stereotypes to regulate interactions through members of the contrary sex.sexist languageThe usage of woman nouns and pronouns once the intended recommendation is come both sexes, or the use of derogatory emotional trigger words as soon as referring to women.signpostA very brief explain that suggests where a speaker is in the decided or that focuses attention on crucial ideas.simileAn clearly comparison, presented with words "like" or "as," between things that are essentially different yet have something in common.simplicityA preferable quality of speech structure. Argues that a speech have a minimal number of key points and also that they be short and also direct.situationThe time and place in i beg your pardon speech interaction occurs.situational audience analysisAudience analysis that concentrates on situational factors, such as the size of the audience, the physical setup for the speech, and also the disposition of the audience toward the topic, the speaker, and also the occasion.skills trainingDeveloping abilities and also attitudes that assist speakers control and transform interaction apprehension into a confident factor.sleeper effectA delay reaction to persuasion.slideA solitary frame in a PowerPoint presentation.slippery steep fallacyThe assumption that when something happens, an inevitable trend is created that will certainly lead to damaging results.small groupA arsenal of three to twelve human being that assemble for a particular purpose.social leadership behaviorOccurs as soon as leaders focus upon building and also maintaining positive, productive relationships among group members.source cardsRecords preserved of the author, title, place and date of publication, and page references for each research study source.source citationParenthetical reference in a speech overview to sources detailed in complete under functions Consulted.spare "brain time"The difference between the rate at i m sorry most people talk (120 come 150 native a minute) and also the rate at i beg your pardon the brain can process language (400 to 800 native a minute).spatial designA pattern because that an informative speech the orders the main points together they occur in physics space.spatial orderA an approach of speech organization in i beg your pardon the main points monitor a directional pattern.speakerThe person who is presenting an oral message to a listener.speaking outlineA brief outline supplied to jog a speaker"s memory during the presentation of a speech.special encyclopediaA comprehensive reference work specialized to a specific subject such as religion, art, law, science, music, etc.specific purposeThe speaker’s particular goal or the solution that the speaker wishes to evoke.speech the acceptanceA ceremonial speech expressing gratitude because that an honor and also acknowledging those that made the accomplishment possible.speech that demonstrationAn informative speech aimed at showing the audience how to execute something or just how something works.speech the descriptionAn informative speech that creates word images to assist the audience recognize a subject.speech the explanationA speech the is to plan to educate the audience around abstract and facility subjects, together as concepts or programs.speech that inspirationA ceremonial decided directed in ~ awakening or reawakening one audience to a goal, purpose, or collection of values.speech the introductionA ceremonial decided in i beg your pardon a featured speak is presented to the audience.speech the presentationA speech the presents who a gift, an award, or part other form of publicly recognition.speech of tributeA ceremonial speech that recognizes the accomplishments of individuals or teams or commemorates distinct events.speech to acquire immediate actionA persuasive speech in i beg your pardon the speaker"s score is to convince the audience to take action in assistance of a provided policy.speech to obtain passive agreementA persuasive decided in i beg your pardon the speaker"s goal is to convince the audience that a given policy is preferable without encouraging the audience to take activity in support of the policy.sponsoring organizationAn organization that, in the lack of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a record on the World broad Web.stage frightAnxiety over the possibility of offering a decided in former of one audience.statisticsNumerical data.stereotypesGeneralized photos of a race, gender, or team that supposedly stand for its vital characteristics.stereotypingCreating an oversimplified picture of a particular group that people, generally by assuming the all members the the group are alike.stock problems designA persuasive speech pattern that attempts to answer the significant general inquiries a reasonable human being would ask prior to agreeing come a change in plans or procedures.storiesAccounts of plot or events that demonstrate points the speaker is making. See likewise narrative.strategic organizationPutting a speech with each other in a particular means to attain a particular an outcome with a certain audience.straw man fallacyUnderstating, distorting, or otherwise misrepresenting the place of adversaries for the benefits of refutation.subordinationThe need that material in an overview descend in prominence from main points to subpoints to sub-subpoints to sub-sub-subpoints.subpointThe major division within a speech’s main points.substanceA high quality possessed by a speech once it has critical message, a careful plan of development, and adequate facts, examples, and also testimony.sub-subpointsDivisions the subpoints within a speech.summary statementThe speaker’s reinterpretation of the speech’s key idea in ~ the end of a presentation.supporting materialsThe products used to assistance a speaker"s ideas. The three significant kinds that supporting materials are examples, statistics, and also testimony.symbolic racismAn indirect kind of racism that employs password words and also subtle, unspoken contrast to indicate that one gyeongju is remarkable to another.symposiumA public presentation in i beg your pardon several human being present all set speeches top top different facets of the exact same topic.

Ttable the motion(move come table the motion) Suspends indefinitely the conversation of a motion.target audienceThe part of the whole audience that the speaker many wants to persuade.task leadership behaviorA leadership focus that directs the fist and task of a team towards a mentioned goal.task needsSubstantive actions essential to aid a little group finish its assigned task.terminal credibilityThe credibility that a speaker at the finish of the speech.testimonialLay testimony used to endorse a person, practice, or institution.testimonyCiting the observations, opinions, or conclusions of other human being or establishments to clarify, support, and strengthen a presentation.textual graphicsVisual presentation of crucial words in a speech making use of a chalkboard, poster board, upper and lower reversal chart, transparency, slide, or handout.thesaurusA book of synonyms.thesis statementThe speech’s main idea.thoroughnessProviding complete and accurate information around a topic.toastA brief speech of tribute, usually readily available at celebration dinners or meetings.topicThe subject of a speech.topical orderA method of speech company in i m sorry the main points division the topic right into logical and also consistent subtopics.topic area perform chartA method of determining feasible speech object by listing subject you discover of interest and subjects your audience finds of interest, and also matching them.transactionThe process by which we find who we room as we connect with others.transactional leadershipA leadership style based on power relationships that counts on reward and punishment to achieve its ends.transformationThe dynamic, positive result of successful, ethical communication on the identities of the speaker and listener and also on windy knowledge.transformational leadershipA leadership style based on mutual respect and also stewardship quite than on control.transition(s)A word, phrase or other connecting element that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on come another.transition(s)The way PowerPoint slides get in and/or leave the screen.transparencyA visual aid drawn, written, or printed on a sheet of clean acetate and shown with an overhead projector.

Uuniversal human valuesEight values determined by the academy for global Ethics the transcend cultural differences: love, truthfulness, fairness, freedom, unity, tolerance, responsibility, and also respect for life.URL (Uniform source Locator)The cable of letter or numbers that determine a website"s address.

VvaluesUnderlying ethics or criter of preferable or ideal actions that have to justify our beliefs and attitudes.verifierA explain by one interviewer confirming the definition of what has just been claimed by the human being interviewed.verbatimUsing the precise words the a source.virtual libraryA search assist that combines Internet an innovation with timeless library methods of cataloguing and assessing data.visual frameworkThe pattern of symbolization and also indentation in a speech synopsis that mirrors the relationships amongst the speaker"s ideas.visualizationThe process of systematically picturing oneself prospering as a speaker and also practicing a speech v that image in mind.vocalized pauseA pause that occurs as soon as a speaker fills the silence in between words through vocalizations such together "uh," "er," and also "um."vocal distractionsFiller words, such together er, um, and also you know, provided in the ar of a pause.vocal varietyChanges in a speaker"s rate, pitch, and also volume that provide the voice range and expressiveness.volumeThe loudness or soft of the speaker"s voice.

Wworking outlineA tentative arrangement showing the pattern of a speech’s significant parts, their loved one importance, and also the method they to the right together.works citedA form of bibliography listed at the end of a formal rundown that lists just those resources of supporting product actually supplied in the speech.works consultedA type of bibliography detailed at the finish of a formal outline that perform all sources of research thought about in the ready of the speech.

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YyearbookA reference work published every year that has information around the previous year.