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Mr. Giotto"s digital Textbook » old Rome » The 2nd Punic War

The second Punic WarHannibal"s War

large viewHannibal"s Oath

The Mercenary battle & The second Punic War

The Mercenary battle (240-237 BC)

Carthage had to pay its mercenary soldiers after ~ the very first Punic War, even though Carthage lost the battle to Rome. Rome forced Carthage to pay for loss after the war, therefore Carthage had actually very little left to salary the mercenaries. A disagreement end payment between the mercenaries and also Carthage caused the Mercenary War. Hamilcar Barca, the an excellent Carthaginian leader of the an initial Punic War, now returned come Africa to perform battle against the exact same mercenaries who were part of his military fighting against Rome in Sicily. Back Hamilcar to be successful, Rome took the possibility of taking manage of the islands of Corsica and also Sardinia if Carthage to be preoccupied v the Mercenary War. This cut off several of Carthage’s main trade routes, and forced Carthage to look for brand-new lands to include to the empire. Thebad feelingsbetween the two powers of Rome and Carthage continued, and also Hamilcar Barca had much more reason to dislike Rome. The was just a matter of time prior to the two an excellent powers would clash again.

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The second Punic battle (218-201 BC)

Distrusting the Carthaginian political leaders who surrendered to Rome, Hamilcar Barca relocated to Iberia (modern Spain) looking to increase Carthaginian territory, and also to one day assault Rome through an military from Spain. Before he left because that Spain, Hamilcar do his son, Hannibal, in ~ a really young age, take it an oath to dislike Rome as lengthy as that lived. The was only after acquisition this oath that Hamilcar i agreeed to take it his boy with him come Spain; and also so, the hatred for Rome to be passed on from dad to son.

Hamilcar did really well in Spain, including territory come the Carthaginian empire and also defeating the Iberians. At some point he was killed in battle, and eventually his son Hannibal became the new Carthaginian leader in Iberia. Hannibal, carrying on his father"s ambitionof revenge onRome,attacked thecity-state of Seguntum in Spain, an allied of Rome. After this successful siege, Hannibal overcome the Ebro River, which violated the treaty with Rome.

Rome claimed war on Carthage, and sent an armytoward Spain. Hannibal"s younger brother, Hasdrubalstayed todefend Spain,as Hannibal"s huge army, which contained 37 war elephants, crossed end the Pyrenees Mountains, into Gaul (modern-day France), throughout the Rhone River, and then right into the Alps. (See map: Hannibal"s route) This was the most daunting part of the journey, countless men, andalmost halfof Hannibal"s elephants, were shed in the Alps. Those in hisarmywho survived might now look right into Italy"s Po flow Valley, whereby Hannibal hope to make allies that the Gauls, who additionally hated the Romans.

Hannibal had countless victories against the roman inn legions in Italy, including the battles at Trebia flow andLake Trasimene. Desperate and also in a crisis, Romeelected a dictator named Fabius. A dictator in the roman inn republic to be one person chosen for six monthswho had complete control of every decisions governingRome.Fabius made decision the best way to loss Hannibal to be to protect against battle and also deprive him and his military of victory and supplies. This so-called "Fabian Tactics"seemed come work, but running indigenous Hannibal"s army hurt roman pride. After Fabian"s dictatorship ended, the 2 Roman consuls, Varro, a risk-taker, and also Paullus, the more cautious commander, ledthe entire armyon alternate days. They would clash with Hannibal at theBattle of Cannae (August 2, 216 BC)in southern Italy.

Cannae is likewise called the fight of annihilation; here, Hannibal"s army totally ruined the 2 Roman legions. Prior to this masterpiece of army strategy, wherein the Romans out-numbered the Carthaginians two-to-one, Hannibal and also his friend, Gisgo, watched from a hill together the Roman forces rolled right into the otastecraftedmcd.com at Cannae. Gisgo, amazed at the size of the Roman army said, "They room so numerous in number!" Hannibal"s famed reply was, "You are very observant regarding the number of the roman army, however there is one point you missed, the in every those soldiers who will confront us in battle today, over there is not a one named Gisgo!" This made Gisgo and the other leaders laugh, and they proceeded to trick the huge Roman military into being surrounded by Hannibal"s smaller forces. Unable to usage the size of their army to one advantage, and unable to maneuver, the Roman army was destroyed. Paullus, the much more cautious of the 2 Roman consuls was killed in battle.

Hannibal waited, and then marchedhis army nearRome to try to pressure the city come surrender, but hehad no siege equipment to take the city. Among his commanders criticized Hannibal, that said, "You know just how to win a battle, but not just how to win a war." together badly as the Romans had been defeated, castle were constantly able come raise one more army, top top the various other hand, though Hannibal was successful, he to be running out of resources, and the political leaders in Carthage to be reluctant to offer him any aid.

Now Rome chose to take the war to Carthage, together they had actually tried throughout the first Punic War. This time Scipio, a great general who had actually been researching Hannibal"s tactics, led the Roman militaries into Africa. The Carthaginians dubbed Hannibal ago to Carthage to defend the city,Hannibal had spent 16 years in Italy, yet nowhis Italian project was over.

The final battle of the battle was in Africa near Zama, prior to the fight of Zama (October 19, 202 BC), Scipio and also Hannibal had actually a conference in the middle area in between the armies. Although adversaries in battle, they had gained a good respect and also friendship on a human level.

Zama to be the only battle of the 2nd Punic war that had a big amount that elephants ~ above the battlefield. Most most likely none of these elephants were the original 37 elephants the Hannibal required to Italy, 17 that those elephants died crossing the Alps, and also the others died in north Italy, other than for Surus, Hannibal"s personal elephant, which he rode to get a far better view of the landscape after shedding the vision in among his eyes.

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Scipio beat Hannibal at Zama, and within a year, the Carthaginians sue for peace. The roman inn terms to be harsh; Carthage lostIberia (Spain)to Rome,had to pay 10,000 talent for battle damages, andits navy was minimal to 10 pearls to defend againstpirates.Carthage to be alsoforbidden from elevating an military without Rome"s permission. As for Hannibal, Scipio walk not need that Carthage hand him over to Rome. That is feasible that he wanted to spare his friend from being paraded in the streets of Rome together a prisoner. Rome and also Carthage would clash again for one last time.

Second Punic battle timeline (218-201 BC)

218 BC – Hannibal pipeline Spain with an army to attack Rome

216 BC – Hannibal annihilates the Roman military at Cannae

215 BC –Syracuse breaks alliance through Rome

215 BC- Philip V that Macedonia allies himself through Hannibal

214-212 BC – roman inn siege the Syracuse, entailing Archimedes

202 BC – Scipio defeat Hannibal at Zama

201 BC – Carthage surrenders

Outcome – Carthage provides up Spain, that is army and also navy.

197 BC - fight of Cynoscephalae, Rome defeat Philip V of Macedonia, a former ally that Hannibal, in Greece

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